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APPENDIX                                   239

the fatty acids by distilling the calcium salt with calcium form-
ate ; but in no case by direct reduction, unless in the form of

{Cira.COO).jCa  I   (HCOO).jCii = 2CIIS.CO.II -!  2CuCOa.

The aldehydes are readily reduced to the alcohols. Charac-
teristic properties of the aldehydes are the formation of aldehyde
ammonias, Schiffs reaction, the reduction of metallic salts and
the production of ticc/tt/s by the action of alcohol in presence of
hydrochloric acid jjas (E. .Fischer).

CILj.CO.ll -I   2C'.,lIaUII - CII,,CII(0(\,nr<), -I- 11..O.


They also polymerise readily. These reactions should be com-
pared with those of ben/aldehyde (I 'rep. 88, p. 196). There are
many reactions which are common to both aldehydes and
ketones, /.*'., to all substances which contain a ketone CO i^roup.
Such, for example, are : d) The formation of an additive com-
pound with sodium bisulphite.

(2)  The action of .PCI.-, which replaces oxygen by chlorine,

/CO -i- PC1;, --   /CCL -I- POCLj.

(3)  The formation of a cyanhydrin with hydrocyanic acid,                       J

\   ,             ,        \    , ,/MH                                               j^

which on hydrolysis yields a hydroxy-acid.

(4)  The formation of an oxime with hvdroxylamine (see Preps.
9, p. 71, and 89, p. 197).

(5) The formation of a phenylhydrazone will)   plienylliydr-

O -K Il2N.NII.CflH0 ->C: